Flat Foot


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Flat foot, also known as pes planus or fallen arches, is a condition where the arches of the foot are lower than normal or absent, causing the entire sole of the foot to come into contact with the ground when standing

Flat Foot ? Causes Symptoms & Treatment

Causes & Symptoms

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Flat feet can develop due to a variety of factors, including:

  • Genetics: Some individuals may inherit a tendency to have flat feet from their parents.
  • Weak Arch Muscles: Weak or underdeveloped muscles that support the arch of the foot can contribute to flat feet.
  • Foot or Ankle Injuries: Trauma or injuries to the foot or ankle, such as fractures or ligament damage, can lead to flat foot development.
  • Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction: Damage or dysfunction of the posterior tibial tendon, which helps support the arch, can result in flat feet.
  • Aging: The natural aging process can lead to weakening of the supportive structures of the foot, including the tendons and ligaments.

Flat feet may not always cause symptoms, and some individuals with flat feet may not experience any problems. However, in other cases, flat feet can cause:

  • Pain or discomfort in the feet, especially around the arch, heel, or ankle.
  • Fatigue or aching in the feet after prolonged standing or walking.
  • Difficulty finding properly fitting shoes or experiencing shoe wear patterns that indicate uneven weight distribution.
  • Ankle instability or frequent ankle sprains.

Diagnosis and Treatment

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Diagnosis of flat feet is done through a physical examination. the arches of the feet, evaluate foot function will be assessed and imaging tests, such as X-rays or CT scans may be done to further assess the structure and alignment of the feet.

Treatment for flat feet depends on the severity of symptoms and associated conditions. Options may include:

  • Supportive Footwear: Wearing properly fitting shoes with good arch support and cushioning can help alleviate symptoms and provide better foot alignment.
  • Orthotic Devices: Custom-made or over-the-counter arch supports or orthotic inserts can help support the arch and improve foot function.
  • Physical Therapy: Exercises and stretches targeted at strengthening the foot and ankle muscles can be beneficial in managing symptoms and improving foot stability.
  • Medications: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be recommended to alleviate pain and reduce inflammation.
  • Bracing or Casting: In more severe cases or when other treatments are ineffective, bracing or casting may be used to provide additional support and encourage proper foot alignment.
  • Surgical Intervention: Surgery is typically considered as a last resort for severe cases of flat foot that do not respond to conservative treatments. Surgical procedures aim to correct the underlying structural abnormalities and restore proper foot function.